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Wayang kulit septiembre 7, 2009

Posted by christian saucedo in Historical references.
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Wayang kulit 01

Wayang1 kulit es un teatro de sombras protagonizado por marionetas, tradicional de Indonesia y Malasia, que fuera declarado Patrimonio Oral e Intangible de la Humanidad por la UNESCO el 7 de noviembre de 2003. Wayang se emplea a menudo en este contexto para referirse a las marionetas utilizadas. Kulit,2 un término javanés que mas allá de su significado literal se puede interpretar también como «sombra» o «imaginación» tiene además la connotación de «espíritu». Las representaciones del Wayang kulit se acompañan tradicionalmente con un gamelan en Java y por un conjunto musical similar de estilo teatral en Bali.

Historia

Wayang es un término genérico que refiere al teatro tradicional en Indonesia. No existe evidencia de que se practicara antes de la llegada del hinduísmo al Sudeste asiático, en algún momento del Siglo I, pero sin duda reconoce raíces en la rica tradición oral de cuentos de la región. El primer registro de una representación data del año 930, en una inscripción que reza «si Galigi mawayang», es decir «Galigi interpretó wayang». De aquella época a nuestros días se han conservado por tradición oral varios detalles históricos. Galigi parece haber sido un actor itinerante invitado a una representación frente al rey. Se narra que -en aquella ocasión- interpretó una historia del Mahabharatasobre el héroe Bhim.

La llegada del hinduísmo significó una lenta adecuación de la cultura nativa: el sánscrito se convirtió en el lenguaje literario y cortesano de Java, y posteriormente de Bali. Se modificaron los libretos y temas representados para difundir la religión, tomando historias del Mahabharata o del Ramayana. Las historias tradicionales nativas se continuaron representando por mucho tiempo en lugares aislados o de influencia tradicionalista, como el occidente de Sumatra , áreas de Java y muchas pequeñas islas del archipiélago. En general prevaleció la fuerza del hinduismo prevaleció, y las leyendas nativas cayeron en el olvido o fueron absorbidas en las representaciones hindúes.

Las figuras de las marionetas se encuentran presentes en las pinturas de aquella época, por ejemplo los murales en el cielorraso del salón de la corte de Klungkung en Bali, donde todavía se utilizan en la pintura tradicional.

Cuando el Islam comenzó a difundirse por Indonesia se prohibió paulatinamente la representación artística de deidades o dioses. Se cree que la transición de marionetas figurativas («wayang golek») a simples siluetas para generar sombras («wayang purwa») fue una adaptación del arte a las condiciones impuestas por la nueva cultura.

Wayang kulit 02

Reresentación

Las marionetas tienen brazos móviles, y suelen construirse en cuero. El intérprete, que recibe el nombre de dalang3 se encarga de manejarlas, ponerles voz y dirigir al grupo musical.

La representación se efectúa actuando las marionetas entre una fuente lumínica y una cortina o telón sobre el que se proyectan las sombras, que es lo que en definitiva puede observar el auditorio.

El wayang no es un espectáculo en el sentido occidental, sino mas bien un ritual: existe la creencia de que los asistentes a un wayang «están libres del mal» aunque se encuentren tan lejos del dalang que no alcancen a escuchar su voz4

Dado que las representaciones suelen durar muchas horas, extendiéndose por lo general toda una noche, resulta significativo que la audiencia no se siente obligada a permanecer silenciosa y atenta, sino que actúa como en una reunion social, incluyendo el consumo de refrigerios. Existen momentos que atraen la atención general, como cuando aparece el héroe de la historia, o se desarrollan luchas entre los personajes.4

Las representaciones se desarrollaban tradicionalmente no sólo en la corte del rey o los palacios de la nobleza, sino junto a los templos, en casas de familia, en plazas e incluso en teatros.5

Frente al dalang, paralelo a la pantalla, se ubican dos troncos de banano, uno pequeño y otro grande, donde se fijan las marionetas mientras no se utilizan. Las que representan a «los héroes» se ubican a la derecha, y los «malvados» a la izquierda. Cerca del dalang se ubica además un incensario («padupan») que se enciende al inicio de la función, y un recipiente («sajen») con ofrendas a los espíritus que pueden consistir en alimentos o flores.4

Fuente: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayang_kulit

Wayang is an Indonesian/Malay word for theatre (literally “shadow[1]) When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. “, the Javanese word for shadow or imagination, also connotes “spirit.” Performances of shadow puppet theater are accompanied by gamelan in Java, and by “gender wayang” in Bali.

UNESCO designated Wayang Kulit, a shadow puppet theater and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003.

History of Wayang Kulit

Wayang is a generic term denoting traditional theatre in Indonesia. There is no evidence that wayang existed before Hinduism came to Southeast Asia sometime in the first century CE brought in by Indian traders. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says “si Galigi mawayang,” or “Sir Galigi played wayang”. From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata.

Wayang Kulit is a popular shadow puppet show in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, especially those in Kelantan and Terengganu, and also in Johor. The origin of the theatre is still remained a mistery, but it was brought to Malaya hundreds of years ago also known as Wayang Kulit Kelantan and Wayang Kulit Siam.

Wayang Kulit is a very unique form of theatre employing the principle of light and shadow. The puppets are crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen.

Wayang Kulit plays are invariably based on romantic tales, especially adaptations of the classic Indian epics, “The Mahabarata” and “The Ramayana”. Some of the plays are also based on local happenings (current issues) or other local secular stories. It is up to the conductor or “Tok Dalang” to decide his direction.

The Tok Dalang is the genius behind the entire performance. It is he who sits behind the screen and narrates the story. With a traditional orchestra in the background to provide a resonant melody and its conventional rhythm, the Tok Dalang modulates his voice to create suspense thus heightening the drama. Invariably, the play climaxes with the triumph of good over evil

Hinduism arrived in Indonesia from India even before the Christian era, and was slowly adopted as the local belief system. Sanskrit became the literary and court language of Java and later of Bali. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories either fell into oblivion or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays.

The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time, for example, the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali. They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today.

When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders converted the wayang golek into wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the shadow instead of the figures itself.[citation needed] Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow picture was displayed, the birth of the wayang kulit.[citation needed]

The figures are painted, flat woodcarvings (a maximum of 5 to 15 mm thick — barely half an inch) with movable arms. The head is solidly attached to the body. Wayang klitik can be used to perform puppet plays either during the day or at night. This type of wayang is relatively rare.

Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb Sudarsono.

Wayang Kulit

Wayang kulit, shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.

The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or the Serat Menak. The island of Lombok has developed its own style of Serat Menak called “kazangiloonga”.

There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; they are sometimes referred to as “clown-servants” because they normally are associated with the story’s hero, and provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar is the father of Gareng (oldest son), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later, possibly to introduce mystical aspects of Islam into the Hindu-Javanese stories. They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs.

The puppets figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta (Solo) is most famous and is the most commonly imitated style of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in West JavaBanyumasCirebonSemarang, and East Java. Bali produces more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years.

Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations.

The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto kulit (skin or parchment), providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week.

The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather.

Resource: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayang

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